Meaning Of Right To Life

The Supreme Court said that life is not restricted to the mere animal existence of a person. It means something more..

Meaning Of Personal Liberty

Personal libertymeans a personal right not to be subjected to imprisonment, arrest or other physical coercion in any manner that does not admit of legal justification.


Law in Article 21 must mean the law of the State or enacted law, and not rules of natural justice.” Patanjali Sastri J. “Law inArt. 21 means positive or State-made law.” Minority Opinion- Fazl Ali J. “Law must include certain principles of natural justice.”

Right To Life And Personal Liberty

According to article 21 of the constitution of India, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty, except according to procedure established by law”. Although unlike USA constitution ‘Due process of law’[2]has not been mentioned in our constitution even though, after the decision of Maneka Gandhi vs UOI we follow the principle of natural justice. This article is very important article because it is a magna karta for human rights. This article cannot be suspended even during emergency.[3]

According to Bhagwati, J., Article 21 “embodies a constitutional value of supreme importance in a democratic society.” Iyer, J., has characterized Article 21 as “the procedural magna carta protective of life and liberty.
This right has been held to be the heart of the Constitution, the most organic and progressive provision in our living constitution, the foundation of our laws.

Right to life is fundamental to our very existence without which we cannot live as human being and includes all those aspects of life, which go to make a man’s life meaningful, complete, and worth living. It is the only article in the Constitution that has received the widest possible interpretation. Under the canopy of Article 21 so many rights have found shelter, growth and nourishment. Thus, the bare necessities, minimum and basic requirements that is essential and unavoidable for a person is the core concept of right to life.

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